England


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London

Tower of London

Palace of Westminster

Westminster Abbey

Kensington Palace

St Paul's Cathedral



 
England

London


Tower  of  London
 




The Tower of London – known as The Tower - has been a Castle, Palace, Prison, Museum and a place offering a secure repository for the keeping of valuables. Spanning back to the 11th century its history started with the death of Edward the Confessor who died childless in 1066.  Edward’s brother-in-law, Harold Godwinson, was crowned king but William, Duke of Normandy, a distant blood relative, claimed he had been promised the throne. This led to William invading England and the defeat of Harold at the Battle of Hastings.  
 
William then set about securing his position by the construction of defensive structures and the construction of the White Tower on the site of what was to become the Tower of London. The Tower was built between 1078 and 1098 by Norman masons who brought some of the stone from Normandy.  The Tower was also built to impress, 90 feet tall and 118 x 106 feet in plan. The walls were 15 feet thick at ground level decreasing to 11 feet as it ascended. The walls on the upper floors had narrow slits positioned in wide splays. On the southern side, four pairs of the original double slits remain. In late 17th and early 18th centuries all others were replaced by Sir Christopher Wren with the windows seen today. The original single entrance was on the south side and it was reached by an external staircase. There were no doors at ground level. On the first floor of the White Tower is the Chapel of St John the Evangelist where the royal family and the court worshipped.  The White Tower is one of the most perfect examples of Norman architecture in Britain.  Today it houses exhibits of arms and armour.  Originally it was protected by the Roman walls on two sides. It also had ditches to the north and west 25 feet wide and 11 feet deep and an earthwork topped by a wooden palisade.
 
The next stage of construction was instigated by Richard the Lionheart (1189-99) before leaving for the Crusade. He left the Tower in the hands of his Chancellor, William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely who added significantly to its defenses, doubling the Tower in size. While Richard was away his brother John besieged the Tower, and Longchamp held out until lack of supplies forced him to surrender. Richard regained control on his return to England in 1194, forgiving John and naming him as his successor. When John became King he often stayed in the Tower.
 
A major extension of the Tower included the building of the Wakefield and the Lanthorn Towers which were undertaken by John’s son Henry III (1216-72). Henry had to take refuge from his rebellious Barons at the Tower in 1238 and set about building defensive walls which he reinforced by nine new towers. He also surrounded it with a moat. In 1240 Henry moved into the Tower on a permanent basis and further developed it with additional buildings, including a church and a great hall, and turned the White Tower into a Palace.
 
When Edward I (1272-1307) came to the throne, he carried out major alterations by filling in the moat and constructing another wall enclosing the existing wall before creating a new moat.
 
In 1381, in the reign of Richard II, the Tower was stormed during the Peasants' Revolt. The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Royal Treasurer, a tax official, and a doctor were taken and subsequently executed. Richard and his brother managed to hide, although Richard was eventually thrown into the dungeon at the Tower and forced to give up the throne to Henry IV.
 
One of the most famous stories of the Tower relates to the two princes - Edward V and his brother, Richard, who were the two sons of Edward IV. They were placed in the Tower by their uncle Richard, their Protector. A short while later they disappeared and many believe that Richard was responsible for their deaths, with Richard becoming Richard III.
 
When Henry VII moved into the Tower in 1485 after killing Richard III in a battle,  he formed a personal bodyguard called the Yeoman Warders, whom to this day still guard the tower and act as guides for tourists.
 
Henry VIII (1509-47) commissioned a range of timber-framed buildings for the use of his second wife, Anne Boleyn, but they were rarely used and the Tower ceased to be a royal residence. After Henry’s break with Rome, the Tower was extensively used for the imprisonment of religious and political prisoners.
 
The future Elizabeth I was imprisoned in the Tower for two months in 1554, on the order of Queen Mary - her half-sister - as she felt that her throne was being threatened by Elizabeth. Also held in the Tower was Lady Jane Grey, the nine day queen, before being executed for treason at the age of 16. Anne Boleyn was also held in the Tower before she was executed. Other residents included Guy Fawkes, famous for his part in the Gunpowder Plot; Sir Thomas Moore and Sir Walter Raleigh who spent most of his 13 years of imprisonment in the Bloody Tower with his wife and two children, and his rooms can be seen on a visit. The Bloody Tower was originally known as the Garden Tower due to it being next to the constable's garden. The square-shaped structure at one time served as a gateway to the Inner Ward.  It gained its present name in the 16th century because of the events which took place there, including the killing of the two princes.
 
The last execution at the Tower was that of German spy Josef Jakobs by firing squad in 1941. The last prisoners were the Kray twins for a few days in 1952 for failing to report for National Service.
 
Today, visitors enter the Tower along a short causeway to the Middle Tower built in the late 13th century.  The archway, together with those of the Byward Tower and the Bloody Tower, were defended by portcullises, two of which remain. Passing through the Byward Tower archway you enter Water Lane. Leading from Water Lane is Mint Street, which is where until 1810, the Royal Mint stood. Along Water Lane is St Thomas Tower built by Edward I between 1275 – 1279 to provide accommodation for the King and a new water entrance to the Tower. This became known as Traitors Gate as prisoners accused of treason were brought to the Tower via this gate. 
 
Tower Green was used for the execution of those whose public beheading on Tower Hill might have incited unrest.  Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard, and Lady Jane Grey were beheaded privately on Tower Green. At the side of Tower Green is the Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula (St. Peter in Chains). This is where most of those who were executed on Tower Hill and some from Tower Green, were buried under flagstones.
 
Also at the side of Tower Green is the Queen's House, built around 1530, probably for Queen Anne Boleyn, she lived there for 18 days while awaiting her execution. The last prisoner to stay in the Queen's House was Rudolf Hess, the Deputy Fuhrer of Nazi Germany. 
 
Within the Tower are eight ravens, and legend has it that if the Ravens ever leave the Tower, England will fall; consequently their wings are clipped to prevent them from flying away. They are cared for by the Raven Master, a duty of one of the Yeoman Warders.
 
Visitors are able to see the Crown Jewels which are housed in Waterloo Barracks, built when the Duke of Wellington was Constable of the Tower. Next to that is the Museum of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, which was the first Regiment to be armed with an improved musket, called a fusil.
 
The Tower of London has played a significant part in English history; it has in the past been seen as a symbol of royal power but is now an instantly recognisable symbol of England.




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The Palace of Westminster




The Palace of Westminster is perhaps better known as the Houses of Parliament and the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom.

The history of the site started in Roman times when a temple dedicated to Apollo is believed to have stood on the site. Although its present development began in the 8th century when a Saxon church dedicated to St Peter was constructed and became known as the West Minster. In the 10th century it became part of a Benedictine abbey and was used as the Royal church, it was its association with the Kings that resulted in the expansion of the site, something that was started by King Cnut (1016 – 1035).

The sites development over the centuries resulted in two palaces, the Old Palace, which was a medieval building constructed in the 11th century and the New Palace constructed after the Old Palace was destroyed by fire.

The Old Palace became the primary residence of the Kings of England from 1049 with Edward the Confessor (1042 – 1066) until 1532 when Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and converted it to become the Palace of Whitehall.  The Royal Council, the predecessor of Parliament, met in Westminster Hall from the 11th century. From 1295 it was the venue of the Model Parliament, the first official Parliament of England. This consisted of clergy, aristocrats and representatives of the counties and boroughs of the Kingdom. It was also the venue for the various Royal Courts of Justice. The commons were given permanent use of St Stephen’s Chapel (now St Stephen’s Hall) in 1547 having previously used various parts of the palace or Westminster Abbey for their meetings.

 

The Palace underwent a number of alterations from the 18th century onwards, as more buildings were added including a new west façade between 1755 and 1770 in order to provide more document storage and committee rooms.

 

On 16 October 1834, a fire broke out in the Palace due to an overheated furnace which set fire to the House of Lords Chamber. This then spread to the Commons Chamber and most of the other parts of the complex, with the exception of Westminster Hall, the Cloisters of St Stephen, the Jewel Tower and the Chapel of St Mary.  King William IV (1830 – 1837) offered Buckingham Palace as an alternative though this was deemed to be unsuitable and was therefore declined.

 

In 1836, 97 design proposals for the new palace had been submitted for consideration and the Gothic style design by Charles Barry was accepted.  In 1840 work started and the Lords Chamber was completed in 1847, the Commons Chamber in 1852 and most of the other buildings by 1860; although it took over 30 years to finish the work completely, delays occurring due to cost increases and by the death of Barry in 1860.

 

Built on the neo-classical principle of symmetry it contains over 1,100 rooms, 100 staircases and 3 miles (4.8 kilometres) of passageways, spread over four floors. Its façade stretches for 266 metres along the bank of the River Thames. Although mainly completed by 1870 work on the interior decoration continued intermittently well into the twentieth century.

 

During the Second World War the Palace was hit by bombs on fourteen separate occasions. One bomb fell into Old Palace Yard and severely damaged the south wall of St Stephen's Porch and the west front. The statue of Richard I (1189 – 1199) the Lionheart, was blown from its pedestal, another bomb destroyed much of the Cloisters. The Clock Tower was also hit blowing out all the glass on the south dial although the hands and bells were not affected and the Clock continued to keep time.  The worst incident however, was on the night of 10/11 May 1941, when the Palace took twelve hits killing three people.  An incendiary bomb hit the chamber of the House of Commons setting it on fire; while another caused the roof of Westminster Hall to catch fire causing significant damage.

 

In 1975 the Palace space has extended to allow MPs to have their own office when it acquired the Norman Shaw Building and in 2000 the custom-built Portcullis House was completed. Portcullis House is accessed by a secure tunnel running from the Palace under Bridge Street.  The building contains a glazed covered courtyard with a cafeteria with meeting rooms on the first floor and offices above.

 

A visit to the Palace will normally follow a prescribed route which includes the main rooms. Unfortunately photographs are not permitted other than in Westminster Hall so none of the other rooms are shown in the video below although the official site of the Palace of Westminster does include some excellent photos and virtual tours. Passing through security visitors enter Westminster Hall which was constructed in 1097 and is the oldest existing part of the Palace of Westminster, which at the time of construction was the largest hall in Europe. The roof was originally supported by pillars, but this was changed during the reign of Richard II (1377 – 1399) to the hammerbeam roof which looks like an inverted ships keel. 

 

Westminster Hall has served numerous functions including housing the main judicial courts of the land. It has also housed a number of important trials, including that of King Charles I (1625 – 1649), Sir William Wallace, Guy Fawkes and Sir Thomas More whose commemorative plaque can be found on the floor of the hall, along with some of the famous who lay in state after their death.

 

From the Westminster Hall you will enter St. Stephen’s Hall which then leads to the Central lobby lying below the Central Tower. From this lobby lead corridors to both chambers of the house, the libraries and committee rooms. Through the House of Lords Chamber the Royal Gallery leads to the Robing Room which the Sovereign uses prior to the state opening of Parliament. Their entrance is through the Sovereign’s entrance in the Victoria Tower with its wrought iron gates. The Victoria Tower consists of twelve floors, which on its completion in 1858 was the tallest secular building in the world. It is used as an archive containing over three million Parliamentary records dating back to 1497.

 

The Tower which most people are aware of is the Clock Tower known as “Big Ben” after the name of the largest of its five bells. It dates from 1859 and has become one of the world’s iconic buildings. Visitors are allowed, although special security clearance is required and they have to climb the 334 steps.

 

The Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 yet it remains very much a working building with significant influence on the United Kingdom and its people.












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Westminster Abbey




Westminster Abbey started as a Benedictine monastery established during the period of 960-980, although it is believed that an abbey - known as St Peters - was founded on the site in the 7th century. Between 1042 and 1052 King Edward the Confessor (1042-1066) began to rebuild and develop the abbey as a royal burial church. Although it was consecrated in 1065 shortly before Edwards’s death, it was not completed until the 1090’s. It was the first church in England to be built in the shape of the cross.

Henry III (1216-1272) started to develop the building in 1245 when he chose it as the place for his burial. Construction took place progressively as Edwards’s church was demolished Henry’s new Gothic building replaced it. At the time of Henry’s death the sanctuary, quire and first bay of the nave had been completed but then work came to a standstill. In 1376 the foundation stone was laid for a new nave, the construction of which took place over 140 years, finally being completed and dedicated in 1516. 

Henry VII (1485-1509) added the Lady Chapel where he and his wife, Elizabeth of York are buried; their remains are in a vault beneath their tombs which are located behind the altar and surrounded by a metal grille.  Also buried in the chapel is James I (1603- 1625) although he has no monument depicting his resting place. After World War II an altar and window to commemorate the fighter pilots and crew who died during the Battle of Britain in 1940 was added.

Over the years the abbey was the usual place of burial for the Kings and Queens until George II (1727-1760), with the exception of Henry VIII (1509-1547) and Charles I (1625-1649). The burial place of seventeen monarchs the abbey is also the resting place of many distinguished people including many famous musicians, writers and scientists as well as political figures.

The Abbey was also the place of the monarchs’ coronation, this started with William I, the Conqueror (1066-1087) in 1066.  Every coronation since 1308 has used King Edward’s Chair which houses the Stone of Scone (also known as the Stone of Destiny). This is a block of red sandstone used for the coronation of Scottish Kings. The stone was captured by Edward I (1272-1307) in 1296 and placed in the chair.  The stone was returned to Scotland in 1996 although provision exists for its return for any future coronation:  The chair can be seen in the Abbey.

In 1540 Henry VIII (1509-1547) granted the abbey the status of a cathedral but it was to retain that status only until 1550 when it was returned to the Benedictine monks by Mary I (1553-1558). They were however to lose it again in 1579 when Elizabeth I (1558-1603) re-established the abbey as a Royal Peculiar, which is a church that falls directly under the control of the Monarch.

The abbey suffered during the civil war with damage being sustained by the statues, the organ and religious images, although it was protected by Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth Period (1649-1659). Cromwell in fact was buried in the Lady Chapel, which is marked by a plaque, although his remains were removed on the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

At the sides of the aisle of the Lady Chapel are the tombs of Mary I and Elizabeth I who share the same tomb, Elizabeth’s coffin resting on top of that of Mary. On the other side of the aisle is the tomb of Mary Queen of Scots. 

The architecture of the abbey underwent a major change between the years of 1722 and 1745 when the two west towers for which the abbey is famous were constructed. The abbey contains some magnificent architecture from its Gothic vaulting with the nave reaching over 31 metres (100 feet) - the highest vault in Britain - to its flying buttresses supporting the exterior of the building and the many tombs and statues. Today the walls look drab but they would have been adorned with brightly coloured paintings.  In front of the altar is a mosaic of over 30,000 pieces of porphyry, glass and onyx laid in marble and dating back to 1268.
A visit to the abbey will also take you into the cloister, used by the monks for meditation and exercise and to the museum. The octagonal Chapter house has its original tile floor dating from 1250 and some 14th century murals.

Located by the abbey is St Margaret’s church, built in the late 11th century to enable people to hear mass without disturbing the monks from carrying out their devotions in the abbey. The present church is the third on the site. The second was constructed in the reign of Edward III (1327-1377).  The third church was started in 1482 but was not consecrated until 1523. In 1614 it became the church of the House of Commons. It continues to be used for worship and also music recitals. While the abbey itself still plays a significant part in the history and life of the nation.


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Kensington Palace




Built in 1605, the Jacobean property that was originally known as Nottingham House was acquired by William (III) and Mary (II) in 1689 for the sum of £20,000. They embarked on an expansion programme under the supervision of Sir Christopher Wren, which was to make the Palace the residence of the British Monarchs until the death of George II in 1760 when it became used as apartments by a number of the Royal Family. Today it still accommodates the offices and private apartments of a number of members of the Royal Family. The State Apartments were opened to the public in 1899 and visitors are still able to visit them and gardens.

The Palace has witnessed a number of sad occasions, in 1694 Queen Mary II (1662-1694) died there of smallpox while William III (William of Orange (1650-1702)) died following a fall from his horse in 1702 and a subsequent chill. The rooms display personal items and tell the story of the their occupants and their lives enabling visitors to learn of its history and the people involved

Leading to the King’s State Apartments is the King’s Staircase which includes the Presence Chamber with a gilded armchair; the Privy Chamber with a beautifully painted ceiling; the Cupola Room which houses a monumental musical clock at the centre of the room; the Council Chamber which displays the dress used by courtiers; and the Kings Gallery with is row of windows, red wall covering and paintings and its beautiful ceiling.  The other main staircase, known as the Wren Staircase, leads to the Queen’s Gallery; Closet; eating, drawing and bedroom and the rooms that made up the Queen’s State Apartments which were added by Queen Anne (1665-1714).

The orangey was also added by Queen Anne in 1704.  But it was George I (1660-1727) who spend a considerable amount of money from 1718 renovating and improving the property including the Copular Room which was to become the principal state room. It was here that Princess Victoria was christened, following her birth at Kensington Palace in 1819. Victoria was to spend 18 years at Kensington Place and it was there that in 1836 she was to meet Albert who was to be her consort. The exhibits trace the events of Victoria’s life and show the rooms and possessions that marked her connection with the Palace.

When Victoria became Queen In 1837she held her first meeting of her Privy Council in the Red Saloon at Kensington Palace. It was Queen Victoria (1819-1901) who was to move to Buckingham Palace making that the official Residence of the British Monarch.  

In 1981 following the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer the couple moved into an apartment in the Palace that was to be the home of Princess Diana until her death in 1997 when the palaces gates were to become the focal point for the public's mourning. The palace contains a collection of dresses of Princess Diana, Princess Margaret and Queen Elizabeth II. 

Following their wedding in April 2011 Kensington Palace became the home of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.

Kensington Palace is managed by Historic Royal Palaces and is furnished with items from the Royal Collection. From 2010 to 2012 it underwent a £20 million restoration project to make it appealing to visitors and one of the London’s major tourist attractions. 






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St Paul's Cathedral




St Paul’s Cathedral was designed by Sir Christopher Wren to replace the cathedral destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666.  Constructed during the years from 1675 to 1710 it is the fourth religious building on the site. The first was built in 604 which was destroyed and rebuilt following Viking raids and subsequent fires. It was around 1087 that Bishop Maurice, the Chaplain to William the Conqueror started the construction of what was to become known as Old St Paul’s. This was completed in 1240 although was subsequently enlarged finally being completed in 1300. Over the years the building gradually fell into disrepair until in 1633 under the supervision of Inigo Jones restoration work was carried out which included the addition of a portico to the west front. The work was stopped with the English civil war (1642 - 1651) and it wasn’t until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 that work was once again to start on the cathedral. However, before any major work could be carried out the Great Fire of London destroyed two-thirds of the city and made the cathedral so unsafe that in 1668 it had to be demolished. Prior to the fire Christopher Wren had produced plans for its renovation and he was asked to produce a design for the new building. These were accepted and work commenced in 1675 construction was to take 35 years with 9 years in the planning.

St Paul's Cathedral is of significant importance in the county’s identity and has been the location of the thanks giving services at the end of the First and Second World Wars and for Queen Victoria’s Jubilee celebrations and Queen Elizabeth’s 80th birthday and her Silver, Golden and Diamond Jubilees. It was also the place where the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer took place. It has been the location for the funeral services for Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, both who are buried in the Crypt as well as Margaret Thatcher and Sir Winston Churchill who is commemorated in the Crypt by the set of iron gates stretching across the crypt and separating it from the restaurant. Numerous other tombs and memorials are scattered throughout the Cathedral including that of Sir Christopher Wren, Florence Nightingale, T.E. Lawrence, Lord Kitchener, Sir Alexandra Fleming and the clergy from the cathedral over the years. It also has a number of memorials dedicated to specific conflicts such as the Falkland and the Gulf War.

Although St Paul's Cathedral is still a working church, with regular services, visitors are able to visit most of the cathedral which includes a number of chapels around the cathedral at ground level while the crypt contains the Knights Bachelor Chapel and the OBE Chapel. 

Built in the shape of a cross visitors enter to see the nave stretching before them. Within the Nave are a number of memorials including the one for the Duke of Wellington who is mounted on Copenhagen his horse from the Battle of Waterloo. At the end of the nave is the lectern in the shape of an eagle. Just passed this is the  Transepts with the crossing stretching between them, this in St Paul’s is known as the Dome Area which is directly below the dome and provides views of the interior of the dome.

The dome consists of three structures which enable the inner dome to be proportional to the internal architecture. Visitors are able to visit a number of levels.  The first is the Whispering Gallery set at 30 metres above the floor and taking 257 steps to reach it. It is so named due to the perfect acoustics which enable a person whispering on one side, to be clearly heard on the other side.  A further 23 meters and 119 steps takes you to the Stone Gallery while the more adventuress can go up the total of 528 steps taking them up 82 meters to the Golden Gallery, which provides panoramic views over the City of London.

Leading from the Dome area is the Quire which is where the choir and the clergy sit during a service. On the north side of the quire is the cathedra which is the place where the Bishop sits and what gives the cathedral its name. The one in St Paul’s as completed in 1697 and is embellished with carved wooden flowers, plants and cherubs. The mosaics decorating the walls and ceiling of the quire where installed following a remark by Queen Victoria that the St Paul’s was “dull, dingy and undevotional”. The high alter and baldacchino (canopy over an altar) were installed in 1958 to replace those destroyed by bomb damage during the Second World War. At the top of the baldacchino are gilded statues of Jesus and angels. In the North Quire aisle is the sculpture of the Mother and Child by Henry Moore. 

Photographs within the Cathedral visitors are not allowed which explains their absence in the video below, with the exception of the All Souls’ Chapel and the Kitchener Memorial by the entrance.






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